But boredom has a darker side: Easily bored people are at higher risk for depression, anxiety, drug addiction, alcoholism, compulsive gambling, eating disorders, hostility, anger, poor social skills, bad grades and low work performance.
By Fiona Parashar Published: There have been more studies on optimism in the last seven years than in the previous twenty. Reviewing the field of research on optimismone is at first struck by the overwhelming number of positive outcomes associated with optimism and then by the widespread propensity that humans have for optimism or for a positive bias in their outlook on life and their self assessment.
Psychologists classify the population as largely optimistic by their measurements. Optimism has been highlighted as being an important evolutionary part of survival.
In his book Optimism: The Biology of Hope, Tiger argued that it is one of our most defining and adaptive characteristics. Research has shown that optimism is correlated with many positive life outcomes including increased life expectancy, general health, better mental health, increased success in sports and work, greater recovery rates from heart operations and better coping strategies when faced with adversity.
In order to evaluate whether this research has indeed proven that optimism is such a positive virtue, we need to understand the historical background that gave rise to the first wave of studies into optimism.
Optimism had historically had a view of being associated with simplistic and unrealistic people, perpetuated more in literature i. As is often the case in all emerging fields, the pendulum strikes one way, then the other and then settles somewhere in the middle. This article argues that this is what has happened in the research documenting the effects of optimism.
The first wave of research focused on defining optimism and creating measurement tools. This then allowed researchers to investigate what optimistic people could do and would do. This coupled with the work of Shelley Taylor who argued strongly in her book Positive Illusions that positive distortions of personal attributes, mastery and assessment of the future are widespread and actually the sign of healthy, well adjusted people, heralded optimism as a desirable and positive trait.
They argued that optimism is associated with, and leads to, securing positive outcomes whereas pessimism is associated with greater negative outcomes Scheier and CarverScheier, Carver and Bridges Carver and Scheier see optimism as dispositional. They have found that optimists report fewer physical symptoms, better health habits and better coping strategies.
Even among a group who had experienced the bad outcome of being diagnosed with breast cancer Carver et al found that optimistic personality types experienced less distress, engaged in more active coping and were less likely to engage in avoidance or denial strategies.
This was developed from the analysis and patterns of how people explained events that happened to them. Seligman developed this analysis into the field of optimism with several other colleagues. He authored the books Learned Optimism and later The Optimistic Child to highlight the relationship between optimism and pessimism and certain styles of explanatory style.
According to this perspective, those who explain away bad events with internal caused by themselvesstable will continue to occur and global will happen in other spheres of life causes are described as pessimistic whilst those who favour external, unstable and specific causes are described as optimistic.
These largely fall into three key areas; The main areas of challenge and qualification were as follows: Taking these in detail let us look at each area in turn: A tranche of studies sought to highlight the fact that pessimism had been somewhat demonised as the opposite end of optimism.Free e-newsletter Subscribe to our e-newsletter to receive all the latest early childhood news.
Learn more ECA Events Our calendar features local and international early childhood conferences and events. Understanding health inequalities: theories, concepts and evidence Professor Gareth Williams School of Social Sciences/Cardiff Institute of Society, Health and Ethics.
Quote HSE " Success in managing major Hazards is not measured by the Occupational Health and Safety Statistics but by measuring the performance of critical systems used to control risks to ensure they are operating as intended..
This statement is a very powerful statement and i want to stand on the premise that it should form the basis of assessing and formulating regulation regimes. v ALCOHOL USE AND SEXUAL RISK BEHAVIOUR: A CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY IN EIGHT COUNTRIES - WHO, GENEVA FOREWORD Alcohol use and unsafe sex are common behaviours and are responsible for a large proportion.
Bored to Death: Chronically Bored People Exhibit Higher Risk-Taking Behavior. An ill-understood emotion may play a role in everything from drug addiction to how satisfied we are with our lives.
Canadian Cataloguing in Publication Data Developed in cooperation with the British Columbia Day Care Action Coalition and the Early Childhood Educators of B.C. Includes bibliographical references: p.